Tag Archives: PIC32MX250

Ultrasonic Anemometer Part 28: New hardware tested

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I last time proudly presented the new RevB board and got a lot of feedback from people who want one, too. As mentioned I have all the components here to ship up to 10 kits but I was reluctant to send anything until I had the chance to do some hardware testing. Not much had changed since the last revision but I don’t like taking chances on things like this.

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In the mean time I managed to do some rudimentary testing and now feel confident to take orders. These tests concern the hardware only. What I said last time about the state of the software still applies. But let me tell you what I’ve been able to test so far.

rxtx_overview

Tests performed so far

  • The PIC32 can be programmed from a PICKit3 via the ICSP header without any issues.
  • Power consumption is as expected. Like the previous version it draws 45mA@12V (programmed) and the other two rails come up with +3.310 and -3.279V, respectively. Also as expected. Regulator stays cool.
  • With the PIC controlling the AXIS, DIRECTION and SIGNAL pins, the transducers receive the 12V signal from the mosfet drivers. HOWEVER: the signals AXIS and DIRECTION are incorrectly labeled both in Eagle as well as on the silk screen. Electrically everything is fine but the names have been confused.
  • The signal from the transducers is properly received (Rec pin on the board) and amplified by a factor of 11 by the first stage of the amplifier (S1 pin on the board).
  • The PIC is able to control the digipot over the internal I2C bus and the second amplifier stage also performs as expected.
  • The zero-crossing detector (ZCD) works.
  • The input to the PIC’s ADC (ADC+ and ADC-) look fine, too. HOWEVER: the labeling on the silk screen is wrong. Eagle is correct, it’s just the silk screen. Plus should be minus and vice-versa. Again, electrically everything is fine.
  • The PIC can communicate (as a slave) with an Arduino UNO connected to the external I2C bus.
  • Communication over USB to a YAT-terminal under Win 7 works.

rxtx_north

rx_closeup

The following has not been tested so far

  • For my tests I still used the transducers already used previously. I believe the ones I ordered last week are of the same type but I haven’t tested them.
  • EEPROM. I haven’t tried the newly added memory yet. I have confirmed that it has power and is connected to the same bus as the digipot so I have no reasons to assume there are issues with it. But testing it would require some software first.
  • The external SPI bus has never been tested, neither on the Rev A board nor with the new one. I don’t expect any problems but I haven’t done any testing so far.

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Is there anything important that I forgot to mention? In that case just ask.  A lot still needs to be done but at this point I’m confident that the board has no major flaws and performs much like the prototype.  Want to give it a try? I have some kits left for you.

i2c1_arduino

Continue here to the next post of this series.

Ultrasonic Anemometer Part 25: I2C Interfacing and more

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It’s been a long six weeks since my last post but that doesn’t mean that I haven’t done anything since. Among other things, I wrote some code to get the I2C interface working and hooked the anemometer up to an Arduino Uno with an LCD display attached. Apart from demonstrating the I2C interface this also nice for testing. For the first time I can see what this thing is measuring in real time without hooking it up to a PC over USB.

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I2C Interfacing

But let’s look at the setup in some more detail. The PIC has a total of two I2C interfaces and I’ve made both of them accessible via the 100mil headers along the edges of the board. One of them is primarily intended for internal purposes like controlling the gain via the I2C digipot. The other one can then be used to interface to some external logic without having to worry about any internal communication. This external I2C interface also comes with 5V compatible pins which means we can interface to 5V devices like an Arduino without any further logic level translation. All we need is a pair of pull-up resistors pulling the SDA and SCL lines up to 5 volts. The Arduino’s Atmega328 already has built-in (weak) pull-up resistors so that’s not a problem. I didn’t think of interfacing to a 5V device when I designed the board and pulled the I2C signals to the anemometer’s 3.3V supply. So for proper 5V operation I’d have to unsolder the two 10k resistors. Luckily, 3.3 volts is enough to almost certainly be recognized as a logic high by the Arduino so the setup works anyway. But I will think about how to improve this in the next version. I might add a diode to allow the lines to be pulled higher than 3.3 volts.

The I2C interface can be configured to act as a master or as a slave device. For now I’ve only implemented slave mode so the wind meter behaves just like a I2C temperature sensor or external ADC. The Arduino acts as a master and asks the slave for its latest measurement every 250ms. The anemometer then returns 8 bytes of data consisting of 2 status bytes, north-south wind speed, east-west wind speed (both in mm/s as signed 16-bit integers) and temperature (0.01 degrees centigrade as signed 16-bit integer). It’s also possible to send data to the anemometer. That data is then saved to a buffer is otherwise ignored.  In a future version of the software one might use this functionality to set the data format to wind speed and wind direction or to change the temperature unit to kelvin or fahrenheit.

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It would not be difficult to implement master mode as well but so far I haven’t done it yet. A lot of code could be copied from the module communicating with the digipot where the PIC acts as a master. The anemometer could then push data to an external device whenever a new measurement becomes available. Definitely something I’d like to implement at some point but no priority right now.

Bug fixes

I’ve found (and fixed) a number of bugs while testing. Among other things, the axis and direction signals were not always properly set and so the measurements did not always correspond to the direction they should. So take with a grain of salt some of the test results reported earlier. Some of them were almost a bit too good to be true and this bug might have been the cause. I suspect I might have compared two successive measurements in the same direction when I actually wanted to compare measurements taken in opposite directions. But I’ve fixed the code and I’m confident that now all the directions are set and reported correctly.

Individual filter kernels

EqualAmplitudes

As can easily be seen from the scope screenshots above, the shape of the received signal varies quite a bit from transducer to transducer. Note that the amplifier gain is dynamically adjusted to make sure the peak amplitude is the same for all of them but the shape still differs quite substantially. So the kernel for the matched filter has to be some compromise to suit them all. I have now modified the software to use four individual kernels, one for each direction. This gives us the flexibility to calibrate the kernel to each transducer and so get more reliable results for the absolute phase.

Revised board

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My main priority at the moment is to complete the revised version of the board and to order a small series of boards. Until recently I never ordered a board from a professional board house so there are quite a few things for me to learn. For the first time I have to worry about silk screen, for example. Or solder mask. On the other hand, a board house can do a lot of things I can’t. Plated-through holes for example. Or smaller vias. Or place vias under an IC. This means a lot more flexibility in my layout that I first have to get used to. But I’m making progress. I got a simple design of mine produced by dirtypcbs.com and got a batch of very usable boards. More on that in a future post.

Wind tunnel

If you’ve been following this project for a long time already you might remember my simplistic wind tunnel made of a 120mm brushless fan and a cardboard tube. I got a number of suggestions from you guys on how to build something better than that and I also found some useful material online. So I’ve started to build a much improved wind tunnel that will hopefully allow me to perform more meaningful tests. That’s also for one or more future posts.

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Software ideas

I’ve also played around with some software ideas that I believe to have potential. One is dynamically adjusting the frequency. I’m now only working at the transducer’s nominal frequency of 40kHz. But the individual transducer’s resonance frequency might be somewhat different and might change with temperature or age. So I might try to adjust the frequency dynamically using some perturbation and observation algorithm.

I’m also thinking about measuring at two slightly different frequencies (say, 39.5kHz and 40.5kHz) and using the two phase shifts to figure out the absolute time-of-flight. I’ve given it a try and was not very successful but I haven’t given up on that idea yet.

So that’s it for now. The code for the Ultrasonic Anemometer as well as the Arduino are available for download. See the overview page for the respective links.

Ultrasonic Anemometer Part 24: New Microcontroller and Software Controlled Gain

It’s been almost three weeks since my last post and some further progress has been made. I’ve upgraded the microcontroller and can now control the gain of the second amplifier stage in software. But let’s look at the changes in some more detail.

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New microcontroller: PIC32MX250

I mentioned last time that I was running out of code space, i.e. flash memory on the PIC32MC220. That particular model has only 32k of flash and I’m using the free version of the XC32 compiler. That free version only performs limited amounts of optimization and therefore produces rather large and slow code compared to the standard and professional version. But the other two are rather costly (around USD 500 and 1000, respectively) and are not really an option here.  And at least so far I’ve always had all the speed I needed so the only issue was flash memory.

So the straight forward solution was to upgrade the microcontroller to an otherwise identical model with more memory. The 250 I’m using now has four times more of both flash (now 128k) and ram (now 32k). I unsoldered the old chip using a hot air gun and soldered in a PIC32MX250 in its place. Now we have all the flash we need to continue our journey.

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Getting I2C to work

My design uses a dual op amp for the necessary amplification of the received signal. The first stage is ground-referenced and uses a simple resistive divider to set the gain (currently set at 11).

The second stage is biased to 1.65V (i.e. half way between ground and 3.3 volts) and has its gain controlled by a I2C digipot. The idea is to have the PIC control the digipot so it can adjust the gain as needed to compensate for any effect that might change the amplitude of the received signal.

So in order to control our digipot we first need to get the I2C interface working on the PIC. There are two (identical) I2C peripherals on the PIC32MX2xx and this design uses one of them (#2) exclusively to communicate to the digipot. The other one (#1) is then available to interface to the outside world.

I’ve written a set of simple functions to use the I2C interface. So far I’ve only implemented  master transmit mode since that’s the only thing we need here.

  • void app_i2c_internal_init(void);
  • bool app_i2c_internal_write(uint8_t address, uint8_t *data, uint8_t length);
  • void app_i2c_internal_writeDigipot(uint8_t value);

The functions are entirely non-blocking so they can be called from within the interrupt service routines that do the measurement.

Fixing a design bug

Unfortunately, I made a mistake in the schematic when I referenced the feedback loop of the second op amp stage to ground instead of the mentioned 1.65 volts. Now let’s look at what that did to the signal. First, below is the signal with the digipot at 0 (of 256). The gain is set to one and all is well.

AmpError_Pot0

But at a setting of 64, some clipping starts to occur as shown below.

AmpError_Pot64

With the gain turned up to 4 with a digipot setting of 192 things get really uggly with a completely unrecognizable output signal.

AmpError_Pot192

I was extremely lucky that the correct signal was available right next to the pin where I needed it so all I had to do was to cut the ground connection with a carving knife and to connect the correct signal using a tiny bit of wire.  The change is hardly visible on the photo below. Can you spot it? It’s almost at the center of the photo at pin 5 (bottom right) of the small 8-pin IC. It now connects to the 10k resistor at the bottom instead of the ground plane on its right.

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Controlling the gain in software

With that error fixed we can now set the gain as we please. Here some examples. Yellow is the (unamplified) input signal whereas green is the output of the (fixed) first amplifier stage.  The purple signal is calculated as the difference between the DAC+ and DAC- signals. Those two signals is what we feed into the PIC to be measured.

With the gain at 1 (digipot at 0) we get a about 2.6 volts peak-peak. A bit little but sufficient.

Amplifier_Pot0

This is probably about what we want. Digipot at 50 resulting in a peak-peak amplitude of a bit above 3 volts.

Amplifier_Pot50

Needless to say that we can jerk the gain up far more than that if we want.  Below is an example where a gain of 4 results in a seriously clipped signal.

Amplifier_Pot192

Now let’s look a a situation where such a high gain might actually be useful. In the example below I’ve lowered the input voltage to only 5 volts. As a result the received signal is only 90mV in amplitude instead of the 220mV seen above. That’s easily compensated with a bit of help from our digipot. With a setting of 170 we get a nice, clean 3 volt output signal.

Amplifier_Vin5_Pot170

Calculating the necessary gain

For the examples above I’ve explicitly set the gain in the code. But what we really want is to have the software calculate and set the necessary gain automatically.

So I’ve implemented a simple algorithm to do so. I set some target value for the peak-to-peak amplitude of the signal measured by the DAC. Knowing the amplitude and digipot setting of the last measurement I calculate the optimal gain and digipot setting for the next measurement.

AmplitudesGain1

Above is the signal without this automatic gain setting in place (gain=1). As you can see, the peak-to-peak amplitudes vary quite a bit between transducer pairs. So the gain calculations, too, work on a transducer pair basis. Each direction gets its own setting to compensate for different transducer sensitivities.

Below is a screenshot of the result. Notice how now all transducer pairs have identical (and somewhat larger) amplitudes.

EqualAmplitudes

That’s it for today. Click here for my next post.